Business
Stock farming
Pig breeding
Feeding pigs

Feeding pigs

Pigs eat once a day, when they wish to do so, and immediately after consuming their food, they produce.

The goal of any livestock owner is to increase the weight, the herd - and, ultimately, the products the cattle produce. Of course, in order for the weight of the cattle to increase and for all life processes to run normally, you need to provide the animals with feed.

Each clone has a feeding trough in the barn, from which only the pigs belonging to that clone will eat. If your pigs belong to more than one clone, make sure all the clones have food in their feeders. In the pigsty organized a common feeder for all animals in the account (if the capacity of the pigsty is sufficient). After the pigsty is built, the animals will feed there.

Feeding the feeder can be stockpiled for several days or even months. If necessary, you can remove excess feed from the feeder back into the clone's inventory.

Each age group of pigs corresponds to its optimal (complete) feed ration. This diet will allow your animals to gain weight at maximum speed and produce the maximum amount of product.

It is important to realize that deviations from the optimal feed ration will result in a lower rate of weight gain in your animals. The greater the deviation from the optimal feed ration, the slower the animal will gain weight. In addition, sub-optimal (incomplete) nutrition will reduce production, and the period of readiness for mating and the gestation period will increase.

You may not feed your cattle at all for a while. Sows and boars do not starve to death. However, animals will lose weight if there is no food at all. Also, starving animals will not produce, and the rate of pregnancy and mating preparation processes will drop to zero,

Warning. If the animals receive very little (relative to the optimal diet) amount of feed, close to zero, or no feed at all, their weight will decrease. In this case, the animals will lose 1/3 of the weight they would have gained with an optimal feed ration on a given day. This rule does not apply to pigs 351-380 days old: such animals do not lose weight.

If your animal's weight drops to 0 kg, it will die.

Optimal ration for pigs from 1 to 30 days of age

Animals between 1 and 30 days of age (inclusive) are considered young. They gradually and evenly increase the consumption of all types of feed - the minimum amount of each type of feed on the first day and up to the maximum amount specified in the table on the last day.

The weight gain of the animals also increases proportionally (from the minimum value on the first day to the maximum value on the last day of this age period). Provided the animals receive an optimal feed ration, the sow and boar will increase in weight from 0.1 kg on the first day to 6 kg on the last day of this age period.

Table. Feed intake at the optimal feed ration of pigs from 1 to 30 days of age

FoodQuantity on the 1st day of the period (kg/day)Quantity on the last day of the period, (kg/day)
Bow Bow0,11,3
Potatoes Potatoes0,11,3
Eggplant Eggplant0,11,2
Tomatoes Tomatoes0,11
Cabbage Cabbage0,11
Bread Bread0,11
Milk Milk0,14

Optimal ration for pigs from 31 to 350 days of age

Table. Feed intake at the optimal feed ration of pigs from 31 to 350 days of age

FoodQuantity (kg/day)
Bow Bow1
Potatoes Potatoes0,5
Eggplant Eggplant0,5
Tomatoes Tomatoes0,5
Cabbage Cabbage0,5
Bread Bread1

Provided the animals receive this optimal feed ration, sows and boars will increase their weight by 0.5 kg daily.

Optimal ration for pigs between 351 and 380 days of age

Animals between 351 and 380 days old (inclusive) are considered old. They gradually and evenly reduce the intake of all types of feed, from the maximum amount shown in the table on day 351, to the minimum amount of each type of feed on day 380.

Table. Feed intake at the optimal feed ration of pigs at 351 to 380 days of age

FoodQuantity on the 1st day of the period (kg/day)Quantity on the last day of the period (kg/day)
Bow Bow10,1
Potatoes Potatoes0,50,1
Eggplant Eggplant0,50,1
Tomatoes Tomatoes0,50,1
Cabbage Cabbage0,50,1
Bread Bread10,1

Animals at this age are no longer gaining weight. They can't mate, they can't exercise, they can't be turned in for meat or bacon. But if a sow has successfully mated with a boar before reaching the age of 351 days, she will bear and give birth as usual (within the total life span of the animal of 380 days).

It is helpful to remember that not only do animals at this age not gain weight, but they also do not lose weight if left hungry. Older animals can live quite well on subsistence food. You don't have to feed them to keep them alive. However, if they are not fed, they will stop producing manure and the gestation period will increase.

Sub-optimal (incomplete) rations for pigs

If it happens that on any day the animal receives less feed than necessary for an optimal diet, such a feed ration is considered sub-optimal (that is, incomplete). This will have the following consequences:

  • The rate of weight gain will decrease.
  • Manure production will decrease.
  • The results of sporting events will worsen.
  • The preparation time for mating will increase.
  • The gestation period will increase.

How do I know how strong these deviations from normal values will be? It's pretty simple. Calculation of weight gain, manure production, and consideration of athletic performance in suboptimal diets

Calculation of the corresponding parameters in case of suboptimal diet is carried out according to the formula:

N = No - A/B,

Where:

  • No - value of the parameter at the optimal ration;
  • A - the number of actually received types of feed;
  • B - number of feed types needed for an optimal diet (7 - for the age group of pigs 1-30 days; 6 - for other age groups).

Calculation of gestation period and preparation for mating in case of suboptimal diet

Calculation of the corresponding parameters in case of suboptimal diet is carried out according to the formula:

N = No - B/A,

Where:

  • No - value of the parameter at the optimal ration;
  • A - the number of actually received types of feed;
  • B - number of feed types needed for an optimal diet (7 - for the age group of pigs 1-30 days; 6 - for other age groups).
Examples

Below we will look at a few examples to help you understand how to calculate production, performance, and gestation and mating preparation times in pigs with sub-optimal (incomplete) feed rations.

The consequences of any intermediate deviations from the optimal feed ration are calculated in the same way.

Situation 1

The young boar (age group 1-30 days) on the 30th day received only 5 types of feed out of 7, and 2 types did not receive at all. Take into account that the weight gain at the optimal diet on that day should have been 6 kg, and the manure production - 8 kg. The boar also sports and has 5,000 Dexterity units.

With the above non-optimal (incomplete) diet the weight gain will be:

X = 6 - 5/7 = ~4.28 kg.

At the specified non-optimal (incomplete) ration, manure production would be:

X = 8 - 5/7 = ~5.71 kg.

With the above non-optimal (incomplete) diet, the animal's effective Dexterity score during the race will be:

X = 5,000 - 5/7 = ~3,571 units.

Situation 2

An adult sow (age group 31-350 days, initial weight 100 kg) consistently receives only 3 types of feed out of 6, and one type receives exactly half. Thus, the animal receives a total of 3.5 types of food. We take into account that the weight gain at the optimal diet should have been 0.5 kg, the production of manure - 8 kg, the period of preparation for mating - 10 days, the period of pregnancy - 35 days.

With the above non-optimal (incomplete) diet the weight gain will be:

X = 0.5 - 3.5/6 = ~0.29 kg.

At the specified non-optimal (incomplete) ration, manure production would be:

X = 8 - 3.5/6 = ~4.66 kg.

At the specified suboptimal (incomplete) ration, the period of preparation for mating will be:

X = 10 - 6/3.5 = ~17.14 days.

The above non-optimal (incomplete) ration will result in a gestation period of

X = 35 - 6/3.5 = ~60 days.

Situation 3

The adult sow (age group 31-350 days) did not receive any type of feed (remained hungry). Take into account that the weight gain at the optimal diet should have been 0.5 kg.

In the absence of all types of food, the weight loss will be:

X = 0.5 - 1/3 = ~0.16 kg.

No products (manure) will be produced. The processes of pregnancy and preparation for mating will stop on this day.