Business
Stock farming
Cattle
Feeding regimen

Age groups and feeding

Depending on the age of the animal, its feed ration may change.

Cattle eat once a day, when they want to, and immediately after they eat, they produce.

Age groups of cattle

All cattle are divided into several groups:

  • Age 1-60 days - youngsters;
  • Age 61-240 and 241-420 days are adult animals;
  • Age 421-480 days are elderly.

Optimal feed ration

In order for the weight of the cattle to increase and for all life processes to run normally, you need to provide the animals with feed.

Each clone has a feeding trough in the barn, from which the cattle belonging to that clone will be fed. If your bulls and cows belong to more than one clone, make sure each clone has feed in the troughs. In the barn is organized a common feeder for all animals in the account (if sufficient capacity of the barn). Once the barn is built, the animals will eat in one place, and you will be much more comfortable to monitor the process.

Feeding the feeder can be stockpiled for several days or even months. If necessary, you can remove excess feed from the feeder back into the clone's inventory.

Deviations from the optimal feed ration will result in lower weight gain in your animals. The greater the deviation from the optimal feed ration, the slower the animal will gain weight. In addition, sub-optimal (incomplete) feeding will reduce production, and the period of readiness for mating and the period of pregnancy will be increased.

You may not feed your cattle at all for a while. Cows and bulls don't starve to death. However, animals will lose weight if there is no food at all. Hungry animals will not produce, and the rate of pregnancy and mating preparation processes will drop to zero.

Warning. If the animals receive very little (relative to the optimal diet) amount of feed, close to zero, or no feed at all, their weight will decrease. In this case, the animals will lose 1/3 of the weight they would have gained with an optimal feed ration on a given day. This rule does not apply to cattle 421-480 days old: such animals do not lose weight.

If your animal's weight drops to 0 kg, it will die.

You can feed your cattle with Superfood. Superfood is not a substitute for a regular diet, it serves as a useful supplement.

Animal age from 1 to 60 days

Animals between 1 and 60 days of age (inclusive) are considered young. They gradually and evenly increase the consumption of all types of feed - from 0.1 kg of each type of feed on the first day to the maximum amount, as indicated in the table about the last day.

The weight gain of the animals also increases proportionally (from the minimum value on the first day to the maximum value on the last day of this age period). Provided the animals receive an optimal feed ration, the heifer will increase in weight from 0.5 kg on the first day to 13 kg on the last day, and the steer will increase in weight from 0.5 kg on the first day to 16 kg on the last day of this age period.

Table. Maximum feed intake on the last (60th) day at optimal feed ration

ResourceBull (kg/day)Cow(kg/day)
MilkMilk88
Mixed fodderMixed fodder1010
LucerneLucerne66
TurnipsTurnips66
Fodder beetsFodder beet33
SwedeSwede33
OatsOats33

Table. Weight gain of animals 1 to 60 days of age given an optimal feed ration

DayBullCow
10,50,5
XW= 0.5 + (X-1) - (16-0.5)/ 59W=0.5+(X-1) *(13-0.5)/59
601613

Animal age from 61 to 240 days

Beginning on the 61st day of life, cows and bulls are considered adult animals.

Animals between 61 and 240 days of age (inclusive) consume a constant amount of feed daily

Table. Feed intake at 61-240 days of age at optimal feed ration

ResourceBull (kg/day)Cow(kg/day)
Mixed fodderMixed fodder4535
LucerneLucerne44
TurnipsTurnips44
Fodder beetsFodder beet22
SwedeSwede22
OatsOats22

Provided the animals receive this optimal feed ration, the cow will increase her weight by 1.083 kg daily and the bull by 1.583 kg daily.

In this age group of animals, you can reduce weight loss in the absence of food if you use superfood as a supplement.

Animal age from 241 to 420 days

Adult animals between 241 and 420 days of age (inclusive) consume a constant amount of feed daily, according to the table.

Table. Feed intake at 241-420 days of age at optimal feed ration

ResourceBull (kg/day)Cow(kg/day)
Mixed fodderMixed fodder4030
LucerneLucerne33
TurnipsTurnips33
Fodder beetsFodder beet21,5
SwedeSwede21,5
OatsOats21,5

Provided the animals receive this optimal feed ration, the cow will increase her weight by 0.275 kg daily and the bull by 0.4 kg daily.

In this age group of animals, you can reduce weight loss in the absence of food if you use Superfood as a supplement.

Animal age 421 to 480 days

Animals between 421 and 480 days old (inclusive) are considered old. They gradually and evenly reduce the consumption of all types of feed - from the maximum amount shown in the table on day 421, and up to 0.1 kg of each type of feed on day 480.

Table. Maximum feed intake at day 421 at optimal feed ration of cattle

ResourceBull (kg/day)Cow(kg/day)
Mixed fodderMixed fodder3030
LucerneLucerne33
TurnipsTurnips33
Fodder beetsFodder beet22
SwedeSwede22
OatsOats22

Animals at this age are no longer gaining weight. They do not produce milk and cannot mate. But if a cow has successfully mated with a bull before reaching the age of 421 days, she will bear and give birth as usual.

It is helpful to remember that not only do animals at this age not gain weight, but they also do not lose weight if left hungry. Older animals can live quite well on subsistence food. You don't have to feed them to keep them alive. However, if they are not fed, they will stop producing manure, and the pregnancy period will increase.

Suboptimal (incomplete) diet

If on any given day an animal has received less feed than is necessary for an optimal ration, that feed ration is considered sub-optimal (that is, incomplete).

This will have the following consequences:

  • The rate of weight gain will decrease.
  • Manure production will decrease.
  • Milk production will decrease.
  • The preparation time for mating will increase.
  • The period of pregnancy will increase.

How do I know what the deviations from normal values will be? It's pretty simple. Calculation of weight gain, milk and manure production at suboptimal rations

Calculation of the corresponding parameters in case of suboptimal diet is carried out according to the formula:

N = No - A/B,

Where:

  • No - value of the parameter at the optimal ration;
  • A - the number of actually received types of feed;
  • B - the number of necessary types of feed for an optimal diet (7 - for the age group of cattle 1-60 days; 6 - for other age groups).

Calculation of the timing of pregnancy and preparation for mating in case of suboptimal diet

Calculation of the corresponding parameters in case of suboptimal diet is carried out according to the formula:

N = No - B/A,

Where:

  • No - value of the parameter at the optimal ration;
  • A - the number of actually received types of feed;
  • B - the number of necessary types of feed for an optimal diet (7 - for the age group of cattle 1-60 days; 6 - for other age groups).

Examples

Below we will look at some examples of situations that will help you understand how to calculate the amount of production, as well as the timing of pregnancy and preparation for mating in cattle with sub-optimal (incomplete) feed rations.

The consequences of any intermediate deviations from the optimal feed ration are calculated in the same way.

Situation 1:

A young steer (age group 1-60 days) on the 60th day received only 5 types of food out of 7, and 2 types did not receive at all. Take into account that the weight gain at the optimal diet on that day should have been 16 kg, and the manure production - 28 kg.

With the above non-optimal (incomplete) diet the weight gain will be:

X = 16 - 5/7 = ~11.42 kg.

At the specified non-optimal (incomplete) ration, manure production would be:

X = 28 - 5/7 = ~20.00 kg.

Situation 2:

A mature cow (age group 241-420 days, initial weight 350 kg) continuously receives only 3 types of feed out of 6, and one type receives exactly half. Thus, the animal receives a total of 3.5 types of food. Consider that the weight gain at the optimal diet was to be 0.275 kg, manure production - 21 kg, milk production - 5.5 liters, the period of preparation for mating - 6 days, the period of pregnancy - 26 days.

With the above non-optimal (incomplete) diet the weight gain will be:

X = 0.275 - 3.5/6 = ~0.16 kg.

At the specified non-optimal (incomplete) ration, manure production would be:

X = 21 - 3.5/6 = ~12.25 kg.

At the specified suboptimal (incomplete) ration, milk production would be:

X = 5.5 - 3.5/6 = ~3.20 liters.

At the specified suboptimal (incomplete) ration, the period of preparation for mating will be:

X = 6 - 6/3.5 = ~10.28 days.

With the above non-optimal (incomplete) ration, the period of pregnancy will be:

X = 26 - 6/3.5 = ~44.57 days.

Situation 3:

The adult cow (age group 61-240 days) did not receive any type of feed (remained hungry). Consider that the weight gain at the optimal diet should have been 1.083 kg.

In the absence of all types of food, the weight loss will be:

X = 1.083 - 1/3 = ~0.36 kg.

No products (milk and manure) will be produced. The processes of pregnancy and preparation for mating will stop on this day.